moon surface

Nevada Association of Land Surveyors



The Nevada Association of Land Surveyors is a statewide non-profit association of Professional Land Surveyors and associates dedicated to advancing the image and profession of Land Surveying. The purpose of this association shall be to promote the common good and welfare of its members in their activities in the profession of Land Surveying; to promote and maintain the highest possible standards of professional ethics and practice; to promote professional uniformity; to promote public awareness and trust in Professional Land Surveyors and their work. (NALS Constitution and Bylaws, Article II).


The Nevada Association of Land Surveyors is proud to offer many benefits to its members. If you are interested in becoming a member, please feel free to call upon any of the officers listed under the NALSOfficers link (at left). You may also download or print an application form by clicking on the graphic (at right - Adobe Acrobat PDF file).


New Coverage compliments of KLAS, VStream compliments of the NALS Communication Committee. Story coming soon in The Nevada Traverse. Tonopah Times-Bonanza and Goldfield News article available in PDF, above - compliments of the NALS Communcation Committee.
Review a past The Nevada Traverse Article on the Beatty GCOP Monument ceremony partially entitled with a theme of “It Takes a Community” authored by Mr. William T. Cuddy, PLS - a founding member of NALS.

What is the lunar surface made of?

The first attempt to land on the Moon was, last July, a complete technical success. It had been decided in 1961 for essentially political reasons, which were forgotten nine years later as the international situation had evolved in the meantime. After the first landing, NASA had the possibility of attempting nine identical operations. Suddenly it became necessary to find a new justification for the extension of a program which amounts to a total of 23.5 billion dollars (130 billion francs). No longer being able to be political or technical, this justification had to be exclusively scientific: the nine successive landings planned on the Moon would therefore allow an in-depth study and exploration of our natural satellite. No sooner had this promise been made to American scientists than they unleashed a violent offensive against NASA’s approach to the lunar exploration program. The resignations of selenologists working at NASA, the public attacks against the management methods of the space agency, multiplied. In the midst of this tumult, little was heard of the first scientific results obtained thanks to the flight of Apollo-11 and which were made public on September 15, at the Smithsonian Institute, in Washington. . public attacks on the management methods of the space agency multiplied. In the midst of this tumult, little was heard of the first scientific results obtained thanks to the flight of Apollo-11 and which were made public on September 15, at the Smithsonian Institute, in Washington. . public attacks on the management methods of the space agency multiplied. In the midst of this tumult, little was heard of the first scientific results obtained thanks to the flight of Apollo-11 and which were made public on September 15, at the Smithsonian Institute, in Washington.

The discreet manner in which the first scientific results of Apollo-11 were made public was all the more surprising as it contrasted with the publicity made around the very first information obtained a few days after the return of the astronauts to Earth. By the end of July, rumors were circulating around the lunar reception laboratory in Houston. Official confirmations were pending, and American newspapers reported from one day to another often contradictory results.

Some officials sometimes tended to speak too quickly. Didn’t Dr. Lathan, responsible for the seismic experiment, declare on July 31 that the signals recorded by the seismograph seemed analogous to terrestrial signals, which showed that the Moon has, like the Earth, a crust and a mantle? ? He was to retract a few weeks later, indicating that the waves captured were in no way similar to those recorded on earth. As early as July 27, the McDonald Observatory in Texas announced that it seemed to have picked up the light signals reflected by the laser reflector abandoned by Armstrong and Aldrin on the Moon. This statement was never confirmed, and it was actually the Lick Observatory, in California, which obtained the first “laser echoes” on August 1.

Since then, this precipitation of American scholars has given way to more circumspection. The preliminary report for September is surprisingly cautious. Descriptive, analytical, he is careful not to formulate theories to explain the observed phenomena.

The Apollo-11 flight included four different experiments: an experiment on the quantity of rare gases (helium, neon, xenon) present in the solar wind (flow of electrically charged particles permanently emitted by the Sun in interplanetary space ); the installation on the Moon of a seismograph and a laser reflector; taking soil samples. For the first three experiments, the results are still few in number or in the process of being counted. The September report mainly reports on the preliminary analysis of the samples.

Stones, earth, dust… what is the Moon made of?

What is the Moon made of? Stone, pebbles, earth? Yes… but it’s a bit more complicated than that, check more information at

“Earthly” elements, but different

In a simplistic way, the Moon is covered with a thick layer of dust and broken stones - the regolith -, above a ground composed of two types of rocks: basalt, i.e. solidified lava, very dark, and a slightly lighter rock, anorthosis, formed of silicates, containing a lot of calcium, aluminum and magnesium.

These minerals also exist on Earth for the most part, but the physical conditions of the Moon transform them in a way not found on our planet.

Intense heat and cold conditions

The greyish or brown dust is made up of rock debris pulverized by the incessant bombardment of micrometeorites… and the strong temperature variations (from -170 to +120°C) on the surface of the star.
But the surface of the Moon is far from homogeneous: the layer of regolith varies from less than one meter to 20 meters depending on the location, for example.

This set forms the lunar crust, which varies from 0 to 100 km. It would be twice as thin on the visible side of the Moon as on its hidden side.

Is there water?

No atmosphere, and therefore no water vapour. On the ground, no trace of water.

Water, an essential prerequisite for life and which covers two thirds of our planet, is it present on the Moon?

Several missions tried to detect it… in vain. At most, 6 billion tons of hydrogen have been found there - which, together with oxygen, makes up the water molecule.

But the presence of water, liquid or jelly, remains to be demonstrated. The latest studies estimate that the Moon would contain 1 to 6 cubic kilometers of frozen water, present at the bottom of craters that never see the light of day. And so the heat.

The far side less exposed to meteorites

The visible face of the Moon is moreover 15 times more exposed to meteorite falls than the hidden face: 31% of the visible face was “bombarded”, against only 2% of the hidden face. These are all elements that modify the structure of the surface of the Earth’s natural satellite.

The Moon also has a mantle, like the Earth. It would be homogeneous on the whole of the star, but certain hypotheses attribute different characteristics to it according to the faces… which would explain the differences in the composition of the crust.

A coat…

According to the data available to date, the mantle is probably homogeneous throughout the Moon. However, some hypotheses propose that the far side would have a slightly different mantle than the visible side, which could be the cause of the difference in crust between the two hemispheres.

The lunar mantle would come from the solidification of an ocean of magma. It is some 1100 km thick. It would be composed abundantly of olivine and pyroxene low in calcium.

… and a core, like the Earth

Finally, the Moon has a core, divided into two parts: a central, solid part, and an outer, liquid part. This existence is attested by the volcanic activity of the Moon, as evidenced by the immense expanses of basalt on its surface.

The average density of the Moon (3.3 tons per cubic meter), much lower than that of the Earth (5.5 t/m3), suggests that it is less “loaded” in heavy metals than the latter - and much poorer in iron.



Since a person may require the services of a Professional Land Surveyor only once during their lifetime, they may not be aware of the logical steps to be followed when selecting a Land Surveyor.

In general, a survey should be made before purchasing real property, when dividing any parcel of land for sale (in conformance with state laws and local ordinances), and prior to the construction of any improvements on property in which you have an interest.

Remember, the services of a Land Surveyor today will cost less in time, worry, and money than the cost of moving improvements or defending a lawsuit later!


Only a Professional Land Surveyor duly licensed by the Nevada State Board of Registration is legally permitted to perform land surveys in the State of Nevada.

Most active Land Surveyors are listed in the yellow pages of the telephone book, or a listing may be obtained from the Nevada Association of Land Surveyors.

A Land Surveyor is an integral part of a professional team composed of attorneys, engineers, architects, planners and landscape architects. Some land surveying companies offer comprehensive services including some, or all of the above.

Choose a Land Surveyor in whose skill and judgment you can put your trust. A Land Surveyor should not be selected by price alone. Competency is of first importance. Your selection should be made when you are sure that the professional you have chosen has all of the facts, and is completely aware of your requirements and/or the requirements of the governmental agency having jurisdiction over the property.

Land Surveyors, like other professionals, vary in knowledge and ability. The experiences expressed by clients has shown that the majority of Land Surveyors provide competent work for a fair fee.


The cost for most land surveying work is determined, based on the following variables:

  1. Type of survey:

Costs may increase as the required precision and scope of the survey increases.

  1. Record Search:

This varies by (a) the number of parcels involved; and (b) the number of past transactions. ( This necessary step is complicated by the casual manner in which land transactions have been handled in the past, resulting in many vague, incomplete, and often contradictory legal descriptions and land records. )

  1. Size and Scope of Property:

An irregularly shaped parcel has more corners to monument than a rectangular parcel containing the same area.

  1. Sectionalized Survey Work:

The could require the survey of the entire section (640 acres ±) in which the land being surveyed lies, regardless of the area of the parcel. In some cases, a survey of more than one section is required, depending on the location of the parcel in question in relation to the sections shown on the government plat.

  1. Terrain:

A level parcel of land is easier to survey than a mountain parcel.

  1. Vegetation:

Branches, brush, and small trees must frequantly be cleared to afford a line of sight for the Surveyor. Shrubs, flowers, and trees on home sites are normally not disturbed, but may require additional field time to perform work around them.

  1. Accessability:

The time to perform the survey work varies with the distance to, and the difficulty in reaching the corners of the site.

  1. Amount of Existing Evidence on Property:

Existing evidence such as iron, wood, or stone monuments, old fences and occupation lines, witness trees, etc. aid the Surveyor. Their absence may compound difficulties involved in retracing the original survey.

  1. Local Knowledge of Property:

Someone pointing out accepted occupation lines and monumentation is a considerable aid to the Surveyor.

  1. Difficulties with Neighbors:

When neighbors are cooperative, an otherwise difficult or impossible boundary line location may be established by boundary line agreement.

  1. Time of Year:

In summer, foliage may present problems making traversing difficult. In winter, weather may slow travel to and on site, and sometimes conceal field evidence.

  1. Title Company Requirements:

Title companies may require considerably more documentation than is normally required by the average land owner.

  1. Record of Survey or other maps:

A Record of Survey map is generally required to be prepared and recorded to memorialize the field work and document the nature of property corners found or set. If your land is being subdivided, a Parcel Map or Subdivision Plat will be required.

Q: Will a Land Surveyor tell me what I own?

A: No, it is your responsibilty to furnish the land surveyor with a legal description, current title report, or policy concerning the parcel that you want surveyed. He/she will then locate the property corners on the ground, marking the corners with physical monuments, and provide you with a record of survey map showing the results of the survey. He/she will also disclose the areas that are in conflict so that the title company and/or attorney can resolve any problems.

Q: Will I be shown if there are any encroachments on the property?

A: Yes, although you should instruct the Land Surveyor to show the encroachments in the area of particular concern to you.

Q: Will I be shown if there are any easements on my property?

A: Yes, if you instruct the Surveyor to do so, and provide a current title report or title policy to use for this purpose. He/she will supply a map, plate, or exhibit showing this information.

Q: How will I be shown what has been surveyed?

A: Corners of the property will be marked with steel rods, pipes, or other such monuments with the Professional Land Surveyor’s license number indicated thereon. The corners of the parcel will be pointed out to you, if requested. A record of survey or corner record will be filed when these monuments are set, indicating dimensions of property lines, monuments, and other relative data as required by state law.

Q: Should I explain why I want a survey made?

A: Yes, if the Surveyor knows why you want a survey, he/she can recommend the type of survey you need, and how much detail should be shown on the map, plat, or exhibit.

Q: Why are there conflicting boundary and easement lines?

A: It is often true that boundary/ easement line disputes, gaps, and overlaps are a result of legal descriptions which were originally written and recorded without the benefit of the services of a competent Land Surveyor. It is important to have these lines properly described and surveyed, if necessary, when property or easement lines are created or changed. Any newly created or adjusted boundary lines requires processing through the local governmental agency as required by state law.



Depending upon the obstacles and project size, a large group of Surveyors use electronic distance and angle measuring equipment, as well as the traditional transit and tape. Modern computer systems aid in effeciently gathering measurements and in evaluating all collected evidence required to perform the survey. The Land Surveyor takes pride in being able to use these instruments and computers to perform land surveys efficiently, accurately, an cost effectively.


A growing number of Surveyors are now using the advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which is a consellation of a nominal 24 NAVigational Satellites with Timing And Ranging (NAVSTAR). The most widely used techniques employed with NAVSTAR GPS surveying are called Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) and variations of Static (Fast, Rapid, etc.).

RTK is used for certain applications where “high accuracy” is not critical, but where efficiency and limited accuracy is required. A general rule of thumb indicates that the higher the accuracy the more costly the work. A good example of RTK applications is rough-grade construction staking for subgrade elevations and positions, or topographic surveying under terrains wherein the land is sloped and not flat.

Static systems are primarily used when accuracy is of the utmost importance. An example where static systems have historically been employed have consisted of precise geodetic work, some boundary surveying as well as precise large-scale leveling projects. Flat sloped areas are then sometimes topographically profiled with an augmenting conventional or digital level or a total station.

Regardless of the GPS and/or conventional method chosen for your project; the land surveyor is restricted in accuracy by the Nevada Administrative Code’s Standards for Professional Land Surveyors. This Code ensures that the surveyor’s resultant measurements and procedures are in line with the specific accuracies which meet the type of survey performed. It is important to share your accuracy needs with the surveyor so that the design criterion for your project is in line with the statistical accuracy of the survey being ordered.


The Nevada Association of Land Surveyors is working diligently with local higher learning institutions to bring about advanced educational experiences in this State. This is very important upon consideration of the fact that NALS supported the enactment of Senate Bill 542, which passed this last 1999 Legislative Session.

Generally, the new law will require that candidates for licensure within this State, among other considerations, be required to have graduated with a minimum of a baccalaureate certificate from a four-year degree program in a land surveying and/or closely related field approved by the Board of Professional Engineers and Land Surveyors. The stipulation to the enforcement of this new law requires that a four-year survey related degree be in place by the year 2006. If this requirement is satisfied, the law will then become effective on year 2010.

The Southern Chapter of NALS, UNLV Survey Program Development Council, Chaired by Mr. Paul Burn, PLS, the Advance Education Committee of the state, NALS, chaired by Mr. Byron Johnson, PLS, as well as supported and attended by many other prominent members of this organization, have been meeting with the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, on a regular basis. NALS, as a collective organization, strongly supports the implementation of a four-year degree program. The organization, as well as the profession at large, are indebted to these proactive individuals. Many commitments have been made by way of a multitude of means and many more will undoubtedly surface. SNALS graciously asks for your support and that of your organizations on this endeavor. Should your chance arise to help this cause in any form possible please don’t hesitate to join in. -Thank you!

Mr. Burn may be reached via the following . Mr Johnson may be reached via the following email:

The UNLV system needs your support and suggestions for the program. Please review either, or both proposals (B.S. or M.S.) and send your comments and letters of support directly to Mr. David James either by linking to his webpage, or by direct email

The original report, filed by our Consultant, Mr. David W. Gibson, PSM, Geomatics Program Director, University of Florida at Gainesville, may be read by reading the consultant proposal .

Mr. Byron Johnson, PLS, has been NALS Program Chair working with the Community College of Southern Nevada for approximately the last 8 years to develop a 2-year Associate degree in land surveying. The program is now in place. The program, which exists within the Building and Technology Department; provides training and instruction for those who desire to gain more breadth and scope than is usually provided within the on-the-job training environment. Take a moment to review the program. Feel free to visit the Community College website for further details.

Please direct your comments regarding this program by emailing Mr. Johnson at


Nals Membership Information
U.C.C = Unofficial Complimentary Copy. An official copy would bear the signatures of the President and Secretary in office during the time when the original document or amendment was ratified by the membership.
U.C.C. NALS Constitution and Bylaws

U.C.C. SNALS Constitution and Bylaws

2000 SNALS CBL Proposed Changes

NALS Membership Application

NALS Oath of Office

NALS’ NRS Insert/Book Order Form




Complimentary Checklist

Nevada Board of Professional Engineers
and Land Surveyors

Nevada Administrative Codes

Nevada Revised Statutes

BLM Nevada

Mt. Diablo Surveyors
Historical Society


Alberta Land Surveyors’Association


Bay Area Regional Deformation GPS Network

BLM CA Cadastral Surveys

Bureau of Land Management

California Geodetic Control Committee

California Geographic Information Assoc.

Caltrans Geometronics

Electronic Map Library (The)




Geographer’s Craft Project (The)

Global Positioning System Overview

GPS Resources

GIS/Cartography Starting Points

GIS Data Depot

Information Science & Engineering

International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing

John Banta’s Coordinate Conversion

Land Surveyor Reference Page

Maine - University of, Dept. of Spatial Maps and Cartography

National Imagery & Mapping Agency


NGS Data Sheets Site (PID)

Northern California GPS Users Group

Professional Association of Ontario Land Surveyors

Professional Publications, Inc.

State Lands Commission - California

Teale GIS Data Center


U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Topo Engineering Center

U.S. Geological Survey

Western Federation of Professional Surveyors


Alaska Society of Professional Land Surveyors

Arizona Professional Land Surveyors

California Land Surveyors Association

Professional Land Surveyors of Colorado

Connecticut Association of Land Surveyors

Delaware Association of Land Surveyors

Florida Surveying and Mapping Society

Surveying and Mapping Society of Georgia

Hawaii Association of Land Surveyors

Idaho Society of Professional Land Surveyors

Illinois Professional Land Surveyors Association

Indiana Society of Professional Land Surveyors


Kansas Society of Land Surveyors

Kentucky Association of Professional Land Surveyors

Louisiana Society of Professional Land Surveyors

Maine Society of Land Surveyors

Maryland Society of Surveyors

Massachusetts Association of Land Surveyors & Civil Engineers

Michigan Society of Professional Surveyors

Minnesota Society of Professional Surveyors


Missouri Association of Registered Land Surveyors

Montana Association of Registered Land Surveyors

Professional Surveyors of Nebraska

New Jersey Society of Professional Land Surveyors

New Mexico Professional Surveyors

New York State Association of Professional Land Surveyors

North Carolina Society of Surveyors

North Dakota Society of Professional Land Surveyors

Professional Land Surveyors of Ohio

Oklahoma Society of Land Surveyors

Professional Association of Ontario Land Surveyors

Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon

Pennsylvannia Society of Land Surveyors

Rhode Island Society of Professional Land Surveyors

South Carolina Society of Professional Land Surveyors

South Dakota Society of Professional Land Surveyors

Tennessee Association of Professional Surveyors

Texas Society of Professional Surveyors

Utah Council of Land Surveyors

Vermont Society of Land Surveyors


Land Surveyors’ Association of Washington

West Virginia Association of Land Surveyors

Wisconsin Society of Land Surveyors

Professional Land Surveyors of Wyoming

Have You Been NODIFY’d?

Timothy Wolf, PLS

No, I haven’t forgotten how to perform a spell check on my computer. And, no, your eyes
don’t herein deceive you. The “word” is actually an acronym representing the new NALS
On-line Discussion and Idea Forum Yonder – NODIFY. Yonder is a word that was
introduced to me during my employment with the Army Corps of Engineers. When sent
to a specific place of duty beyond our normal worksite, the Corps described this as TDY,
Temporary Duty Yonder. Yes, I could have surely come up with an acronym that
correctly spells NOTIFY. But, that may or may not get as much attention as spelling it
“incorrectly” and would have taken more time to coin. The purpose of this article is to
explain some of the benefits and nuances to use this utility located on-line
( at the NALS Web Board tab – lower left. The name in
itself should nearly say it all.
Primarily allow me to delineate some of the benefits. Some of these are outlined on the
President’s message within this publication. It is my understanding that Internet in itself
was not necessarily created by any Vice-President within any United States presidential
administration, but rather was established as a means for scientist and others to share
ideas in a non-formal, expedient and as-needed basis spanning great distances between
laboratories and observatories nearly cost-free.
NODIFY exhibits many of those qualities and more. NODIFY is merely the name coined
for the utility. However, the utility was initially exposed to me by the use via the
Wisconsin Society of Land Surveyors. I then inquired how to obtain the source of the
code to Mr. Jeffrey Austin, PLS, then Webmaster. He passed along the address of the
group of programmers that prepare the free code at This group
also allows users to modify the coding to suit their uses under agreed download contract,
hence my changes. The full name of the group of programmers is called Yet Another
Bulletin Board (YABB).
Considering our busy schedules, more demand for our time and attention, the great span
between population centers in our vastly unpopulated state, varying work schedules and
related commitments; having an at-will source to share ideas, get feedback and work to
solve problems cognizant of the voices of concern in our profession and association
should provide an immense benefit. With this utility, I won’t pretend to know your
thoughts or suggest that I know what is collectively best for the organization. I pledge to
consider your thoughts and I trust that other officers of our organization will use the
merits of value statements made in the many forum topics on the site. I hope that this
utility will long outlive the 2004 NALS Administration in one form or another.
Next, allow me to explain some of the features and potential nuances. Initially, when one
decides to become active to write about a subject on the NODIFY Web Board, they must
register. Begin by selecting the Register tab on the Activity Panel (shown in Figures 1, 2
& 3). They will then be taken to a screen where they will be prompted to select an Online Screen Name, enter their user E-mail address, determine if they want their e-mail address accessible to others as well as review the rules and restrictions of using the
utility. They can then reject or accept the terms of the site. If they accept, a temporary
password will be sent to their designated e-mail address. They must go retrieve that
temporary password in order to Login.
During the Login process, the user can determine if they want to stay logged-on and for
what period. This is not necessarily intended for the current logon, but can be used to set
a time limit for the current logon. It is primarily used to establish a day, month, or year
logon status wherein a cookie is sent to your computer. If, for instance, a month is
selected and a user visits the site a couple of days after the initial logon using the same
computer, the system recognizes your computer (not necessarily you), and the “user”
(computer) is logged on automatically upon access to NODIFY.
Once the Login process is complete, the new member can select the Profile Icon to
change the password to something more meaningful to them. One can also use this
opportunity to make a special statement and select a graphic icon that will be present as a
part of their comments when in a forum. There are other opportunities in the profile. If at
a later date a user decides to change their statement, icon and/or username, they can do so
here and all of their previous messages written beforehand will also be changed.
The Home icon takes the user to the home page of the utility at any time in one easy step.
The Search icon is very beneficial and has many integrated functions. A user can search
by date, time span, topic, user and other parameters to get to topics of their choice. The
Members icon allows users to see the user names, status of on-line users, posting activity
statistics and, if allowed, the e-mail address of other users in the system.
The Notification icon organizes a list of the topics that you have indicated that you are
interested in being notified about. A topic of interest is established when you post a reply
or establish a new discussion topic. At the time of creation, you are able to select a box
that indicates that you want notification if anyone else comments in writing about the
topic. You will receive an e-mail at your given e-mail address when this occurs. If you
want to turn this option off, the Notification icon takes you to the page to do so.
It may be important to know that any user can take advantage of the on-line help section
designated by the Help icon located on the Activity Panel. The help section provides a
very detailed and beneficial overview of the complete utility from a programmatic
In addition to providing an overview of the available user icons, I want to briefly cover
the options available in posting or replying to a topic. Foremost, establishing Forums are
the privilege of the Administrator. There will be more on Administrator functions to
follow. Suffice the preceding to be mentioned at this point in an effort to state that a user
who is desirous of establishing a new forum should contact the Administrator by going to
the Members icon and e-mailing him with a forum idea and request.

The non-Administrator user, more specifically titled “member” can do a number of
functions regarding a particular discussion forum. For instance, let’s examine a specific
topic posted at the Educational Events Forum entitled “BREAKFAST ROUNTABLE
MARCH 20,2004.” If a user opens this thread, or any particular discussion thread, the
user will find about six icon options, namely; Reply, Notify of Replies, Send Topic, then
Quote, Modify and Remove. The first three are general functions. The last three are
specific to the original user who posted the discussion thread.
The Reply icon is used to reply to the existing topic. For instance, this can be used by
anyone and can ask a clarifying question, add to the information if more is known as well
as add to anything related to this discussion thread. The Notify of Replies icon is used if
anyone wants to watch the activity of this particular discussion thread. This may indicate
that you find the topic interesting and don’t specifically want to comment, but you want
to have an e-mail sent to you every time a new post is made to the topic. The Send Topic
icon can be used to send the particular discussion thread to a friend or potentially
interested individual.
The Quote icon is used to post a reply to an existing thread, but to have parts of the
previous thread quoted in your new reply. The user can then cut out parts that they don’t
want quoted as all parts to the previous thread are set up for quotes. The Modify icon can
only be used by the original author of the object thread regarding changes. In other
words, a user can’t change another member’s post. This can be done to correct mistakes
or to make changes for one reason or another. This isn’t used to completely change
thoughts in the event that the response was negative. All topics are stored in memory.
Yes, one can change the original language, for instance, but the first draft still exists in
memory. And, similar to the privileges relating to the Modify icon, the Remove icon can
only be activated by the original member who made the post. These rules are not
necessarily the same as those for the Administrator.
Another area deserving attention in order to be effective in the use of this utility is the
member’s options allowed during a post. I will leave most of these varied and plentiful
options to the test of the member. However, it should suffice to know that during a post a
member can bold, underline, glow, shadow, add a hyperlink or e-mail address or graphic,
change text justification, add java code, super or subscript text, add smiley faces, post
strikethroughs, flash, animated graphics, hotlink portable document files (PDF) and a
host of other options.
The member can preview the posting to review for mistakes and esthetic layout prior to
finalizing. But, remember that with the Modify icon, the original posting member can go
back and change anything at any time. One minor note with hyperlinking is that the file
linked must already be available on someone’s Web site. If you are a NALS member and
the Administrator feels the item that you request to link that isn’t already on someone
else’s Web site is beneficial and meets the rules, you can ask to have your file placed on
our Web site for link. Send your current request and accompanying digital file to Note the date format on the example Educational Event Forum topic.
This acts as a calendar so that multiple events aren’t scheduled at the same time.

The last item I will explain is the role of the Administrator. Currently there is only one
Administrator. However, there can be many administrators. Too many isn’t preferred as
there are other responsibilities and privileges bestowed upon this group of users.
However, at the very least, I would prefer to establish a group of Administrators whereby
the NALS State Office and each Chapter has one user with these privileges. This will
require a set of rules to keep the site formal, systematic, reduce excessive space
utilization and diminish parallel topic forums and postings.
There are other nuances and options. However, the preceding should provide enough
information to get you headed in the right direction. As a wise man once said, when it
comes to politics, business and generally any topic, talk is cheap but dialog is invaluable.
Consider yourself NODIFY’d!

NSPS Governor’s Report

By Brett K. Jefferson, P.L.S

The NSPS Board of Governor’s (BOG) met March 17th and 18th in Las Vegas, Nevada in conjunction with the ACSM-CLSA-NALS-WFPS Conference and Exposition. The following are highlights from the Board of Governor’s (BOG) meeting:

NSPS Restructure Committee Interim Report: The committee met on March 16th and 17th in Las Vegas. They reviewed the plan of the Restructure Committee as presented at the March 2000 in Little Rock, Arkansas. There was considerable discussion about the structure, size, and membership of the Board of Directors as proposed in the plan. The committee also prepared a proposal for a Vision and Mission Statement for NSPS to serve as a framework for NSPS, and as guidance for the future committee proposals.

The committee as a whole discussed and is proposing that the ACSM Reorganization Plan, as prepared by the ACSM Sub-committee, will serve as the basis for an official Ad Hoc ACSM Re-organization Committee.

The committee determined the need to address the concerns and understanding of the Restructure Plan as presented in the report. The plan as proposed may be misunderstood. The plan is designed to provide a transitional method to move from the structure we have today, to the structure as proposed. The Board of Governors will continue to function as they do today. The change as proposed provides a method for a state affiliate that has achieved full membership within ACSM, to receive a seat and vote on the Board of Directors. The Area Directors will continue to represent the states as they do today. The size of the Board of Directors as proposed was also considered, but the committee was not able to reach a consensus.

The “Sliding Scale” as proposed by Nevada appears to provide an alternative method for increased membership in ACSM. This proposal, as discussed by the committee, received favorable consideration and is a concept for future committee actions.

The committee encourages the Board of Governors to support he NSPS Vision and Mission Statements presented. The Vision and Mission Statement is designed to provide the basis for future discussions and directions.

Vision of the NSPS for the 21st Century

Preamble: The National Society of Professional Surveyors is the representative voice of the Surveying profession at the national level. To further this position we are committed to:

Vision: The future success of NSPS is driven by our ability to develop and maintain a dynamic organization to which surveying professionals and technicians believe they must belong to further their professional and personal goals.

Mission: It is the Mission of NSPS to:

Background Information and Conclusions: The NSPS Restructure Committee affirmed the validity of the vision and mission as stated above. The committee also concluded that to truly be the leading national organization of the profession, NSPS must represent all or at least a majority of the professional surveyors of the affiliate societies. To achieve the vision of being the leading national organization, the membership of the organization must be more broad–based than currently exists.

The governing body of NSPS must reflect this representation. The current structure of our organization can be more efficient at achieving the vision, mission, strategic goals, and objectives that flow from them. As a result the committee identified the following primary conclusion with regard to membership and governance: To capture the energy of a new broad-based membership, the governing body of the organization must be correspondingly modified. This motion was passed by the BOG.

Nominating Committee: The National Society of Professional Surveyors (NSPS) Nominating Committee shall consist of the following seven (7) members: (1) the Immediate Past President of NSPS; (2) the Immediate past Nominating Committee Chairman; (3) a NSPS Director beginning the second year of a three year term who shall be elected from a slate consisting of such second year directors by receiving a majority of votes of the membership present at the annual (spring) meeting; (4) a Governor elected by the Board of Governors at the BOG meeting prior to the annual (spring) meeting and three (3) additional NSPS members who shall be nominated from the floor and elected by a majority of the membership present at the Annual Meeting of the Society. The Nominating Committee will elect its own chairman. The Immediate past Nomination Committee Chairman may not serve consecutive in that capacity. Members of the Nomination Committee are ineligible for nomination. Motion Passed by the BOG.

NSPS Awards and Map/Plat Judges: To accept Governors’ Cook, Jefferson and Charlier as NSPS Awards Judges, and Governors’ Ray and Garlitz as NSPS Map/Plat Judges. Motion Passed by the BOG.

Life Membership Presentation: John Fenn was presented with a Life Membership Award for his generous donation of $5,000 to the NSPS Foundation, Inc.

Student Competition: The NSPS Board of Governors affirms the “Surveying Student Competition” and encourages the NSPS Board of Directors to implement by Spring 2002 the plan to be submitted by the Education Committee. Motion Passed by the BOG.

Nevada Sliding Scale: The NSPS Board of Governors recommends to the NSPS Board of Directors and the ACSM Board of Direction that all state affiliates be allowed to adopt a “Sliding Scale” for ACSM / NSPS membership dues similar to that adopted for Nevada. Motion passed by the BOG.

Dues Service Fees: The NSPS Board of Governors recommends to the NSPS Board of Directors and the ACSM Board of Direction that state affiliates by allowed to retain a “Service Fee” for collecting ACSM / NSPS membership dues on a “Sliding Scale” program similar to that adopted by the Nevada Association of Land Surveyors. Motion passed by the BOG.

Surveying Software Review: The NSPS Board of Governors recommends to the NSPS Board of Directors and the ACSM Board of Direction that a Bulletin Board be added to the ACSM / NSPS Website to alert the surveying community to issues related to software and hardware. Motion Passed by the BOG.

Trig-Star: Governor Chagnon reported that there are currently 26 states participating in the Trig-Star program.

Blacklisting Is Back: Once again the Federal Government is proposing regulations which would allow their agencies to blacklist contractors (those who enter into agreements with the Federal Government by executing a contract) who the agencies feel do not comply with various regulations. The ACSM / NSPS Joint Governmental Affairs Committee is on record as being opposed to the proposed regulations for two reasons. The first reason being that there is no provision in the proposed regulations for “due process,” which means that a contracting officer could blacklist a contractor for a perceived violation and the contractor would have no recourse. The second reason for the opposition is that there are regulations currently in place which allows federal agencies to deal (or not to deal) with contractors who violate the law.

NSPS President Report: Tommy Brooks reported that the number one priority for NSPS continues to be Government Affairs and representing surveyors nationally with respect to HUD Standards, FEMA Mapping, ALTA Survey Standards, Government Contract Bundeling, USGS Mapping and interfacing with NGS.

NSPS Treasure Report: Jon Abenroth reported that with recent dues income NSPS had $315,000 in cash and with the ACSM Note of $56,000 the year end net worth of NSPS was $371,000.

ACSM Executive Director Report: Curt Sumner reported that the auditors suggest a staff person be added with accounting expertise. The ACSM Bulletin is back on schedule. ACSM needs to renegotiate a new contract with NICET. The CST program is becoming very successful and an important service to surveying technicians. The ACSM E-store continues to be successful on the ACSM Website. AAGS is working on incorporating. New membership brochures are completed and ready for distribution. FEMA insurers are wanting to change certificates, ACSM and FEMA are opposing the changes. Nominations will be done earlier now that the By-Law changes have passed. New licensing and the Model Law issues are urgent and must be addressed quickly.

ACSM/NSPS/NALS Joint Membership Status: Question 4 on the State ballot passed paving the way for joint membership between ACSM, NSPS and NALS. Curt Sumner, Executive Director of ACSM and I have put together a letter to be mailed out to promote the joint membership opportunity. NALS Central Office should have the letters out in the mail soon.

ACSM Conferences: Gary Kent reported that the Conference Committee will be recommending to the ACSM Board of Direction that the 2003 Spring Meeting be held in Phoenix, Arizona and the 2004 Spring Meeting be held in Nashville, Tennessee.

NGS Report: Ed McKay, Director of NGS, reported that the FBN HARN Re-observation effort has been suspended due to budget cuts. NGS will be contracting out more surveying and mapping for height modernization (the report for which has never officially been released). Information on subcontracting will be available on the ACSM website. In addition, Mr. McKay reported that without budget increases the NGS will not exist in 7 to 10 years and urged for support to keep the NGS alive.

Lamar Evers was elected Chairman of the Board of Directors and Joe Baird was elected Secretary.

Words of Wisdom from Jerry Goodson, Immediate Past Chairman of the Board of Governors: When you are involved in a volunteer organization, you are always getting more than what you paid for.

If you have any questions, comments or concerns regarding any of the issues presented in this report please forward them to me and I will do my best to get the answer for you or represent your opinion at the next meeting. You can reach me by email at